about your interest in, questions about, or use of dietary supplements and what may be best for your overall health. Updated: July 15, 2020 History of changes to this fact sheet, U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Strengthening Knowledge and Understanding of Dietary Supplements, My Dietary Supplement and Medicine Record, How To Evaluate Health Information on the Internet, NIH Consortium for Advancing Research on Botanical and Other Natural Products (CARBON) Program, Analytical Methods and Reference Materials (AMRM), Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID), Computer Access to Research on Dietary Supplements (CARDS) Database, Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc, Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide. Arch Ophthalmol 2001;119:1417-36. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA): Average daily level of intake sufficient to meet the nutrient requirements of nearly all (97%–98%) healthy individuals; often used to plan nutritionally adequate diets for individuals. [, Hulisz D. Efficacy of zinc against common cold viruses: an overview. However, some evidence suggests that zinc intakes among older adults might be marginal. The superoxide dismutase of bacteria and mitochondria, as well as pyruvate carboxylase in mammals, are also manganese proteins.16,17 How the multiple manganese atoms of the photosynthetic reaction center participate in the removal of four electrons and protons from water is the subject of intense investigation by spectroscopists, synthetic inorganic chemists, and molecular biologists.17. In addition, the variety and amount of food consumed by many alcoholics is limited, leading to inadequate zinc intake [2,49,50]. High dose zinc increases hospital admissions due to genitourinary complications. Zinc-induced copper deficiency: a report of three cases initially recognized on bone marrow examination. Whether any types of biological reactions are unique to copper proteins is not clear. * DV = Daily Value. Thiazide diuretics such as chlorthalidone (Hygroton®) and hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix® and HydroDIURIL®) increase urinary zinc excretion by as much as 60% [93]. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1975;9:131-4. Upon reducing cellular zinc, repression is lost and MTF-1 is not translocated to the nucleus, allowing enhanced ZIP10 transcriptional activation. The FNB has established ULs for zinc (Table 3). [, Wilkinson EA, Hawke CI. Dynamics of Poverty and Food Sufficiency. Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL): Maximum daily intake unlikely to cause adverse health effects. For this reason, dietary supplement formulations containing high levels of zinc, such as the one used in the AREDS study [75], sometimes contain copper. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR): Average daily level of intake estimated to meet the requirements of 50% of healthy individuals; usually used to assess the nutrient intakes of groups of people and to plan nutritionally adequate diets for them; can also be used to assess the nutrient intakes of individuals. Zinc - Zinc is an essential element involved in a myriad of enzyme systems including wound healing, immune function, and fetal development. However, treatment with zinc acetate lozenges (providing 5 or 11.5 mg zinc) had no effect on either cold duration or severity. Iron is the most common transition metal in biology.6,7 Its use has created a dependence that has survived the appearance of dioxygen in the atmosphere ca. Zinc requirements and the risks and benefits of zinc supplementation. Results from a large cross-sectional survey suggest that 44% of children with sickle cell disease have a low plasma zinc concentration [45], possibly due to increased nutrient requirements and/or poor nutritional status [46]. Zinc. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. [, van Leeuwen R, Boekhoorn S, Vingerling JR, Witteman JC, Klaver CC, Hofman A, et al. Food Assistance and Nutrition Report Number 36, 2003. Ask ODS High zinc intakes can inhibit copper absorption, sometimes producing copper deficiency and associated anemia [84,85]. Eur J Clin Nutr 1997;51 (1 Suppl):S17-9. [, Prasad AS. Vanadium is required for normal health, and could act in vivo either as a metal cation or as a phosphate analogue, depending on the oxidation state, V(lV) or V(V), respectively. [, Wilkinson EA, Hawke CI. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets. Individuals who have or are developing AMD should talk to their healthcare provider about taking a zinc-containing AREDS supplement. Wound Repair Regen 2007;15:2-16. Zinc is a naturally occurring mineral. The LibreTexts libraries are Powered by MindTouch® and are supported by the Department of Education Open Textbook Pilot Project, the UC Davis Office of the Provost, the UC Davis Library, the California State University Affordable Learning Solutions Program, and Merlot. Legal. [, Ploysangam A, Falciglia GA, Brehm BJ. Am J Physiol 1997;272:E1002-7. Studies show that poor, malnourished children in India, Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia experience shorter courses of infectious diarrhea after taking zinc supplements [64]. Patients with chronic leg ulcers have abnormal zinc metabolism and low serum zinc levels [59], and clinicians frequently treat skin ulcers with zinc supplements [60]. Man-made zinc alloy products have been reliably dated as far back as 500 BC, and zinc was first intentionally added to copper to form brass around 200-300 BC. Lutein + zeaxanthin and omega-3 fatty acids for age-related macular degeneration: the Age-Related Eye Disease Study 2 (AREDS2) randomized clinical trial. For more information about building a healthy diet, refer to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's MyPlate. Vitamin-B12 deficiency causes the severe disease of pernicious anemia in humans, which indicates the critical role of cobalt. Of the trace minerals, this element is second only to iron in its concentration in the body. Zinc and immune function: the biological basis of altered resistance to infection. Altern Ther Health Med 2006;12:34-8. About 2.5g of zinc is present in an average human body, whereas we consume almost 15 milligrams per day. [, Bahl R, Bhandari N, Hambidge KM, Bhan MK. Therapeutic and preventive effects of zinc on serious childhood infectious diseases in developing countries. J Am Coll Nutr 1993;12:26-30. Some Mo-proteins contain additional cofactors such as the Havins, e.g., in xanthine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. One case report cited severe nausea and vomiting within 30 minutes of ingesting 4 g of zinc gluconate (570 mg elemental zinc) [86]. Other diseases associated with zinc deficiency include malabsorption syndrome, chronic liver disease, chronic renal disease, sickle cell disease, diabetes, malignancy, and other chronic illnesses [40]. Zinc helps maintain the integrity of skin and mucosal membranes [52]. January 2011; Journal of Clinical Toxicology s3(01) DOI: 10.4172/2161-0495.S3-001. )%2F01%253A_Transition-Metal_Storage_Transport_and_Biomineralization%2F1.01%253A_Biological_Significance_of_Iron_Zinc_Copper_Molybdenum_Cobalt_Chromium_Vanadium_and_Nickel, 1: Transition-Metal Storage, Transport, and Biomineralization, information contact us at info@libretexts.org, status page at https://status.libretexts.org. Vegetarians sometimes require as much as 50% more of the RDA for zinc than non-vegetarians [2]. Neurology. Effect of zinc sulphate on the absorption of tetracycline and doxycycline in man. Oysters contain more zinc per serving than any other food, but red meat and poultry provide the majority of zinc in the American diet. J Am Med Assoc 1980;244:1960-1. [, Nishi Y. Zinc and growth. Plasma zinc as a predictor of diarrheal and respiratory morbidity in children in an urban slum setting. Pancreas 1994;9:270-4. Effects of zinc deficiency on Th1 and Th2 cytokine shifts. Much of the zinc in animals and plants has no known function, but it may be maintaining the structures of proteins that activate and deactivate genes.11. ABSTRACT. Other zinc-finger proteins called steroid receptors bind both steroids such as progesterone and the progesterone gene DNA (Chapter 8). Some of the activities that zinc are involved in: In addition to standard tablets and capsules, some zinc-containing cold lozenges are labeled as dietary supplements. [, Zemel BS, Kawchak DA, Fung EB, Ohene-Frempong K, Stallings VA. Effect of zinc supplementation on growth and body composition in children with sickle cell disease. Gastrointestinal surgery and digestive disorders (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and short bowel syndrome) can decrease zinc absorption and increase endogenous zinc losses primarily from the gastrointestinal tract and, to a lesser extent, from the kidney [2,29,38,39]. [, Dixon LB, Winkleby MA, Radimer KL. As previously noted, the safety of intranasal zinc has been called into question because of numerous reports of anosmia (loss of smell), in some cases long-lasting or permanent, from the use of zinc-containing nasal gels or sprays [17-19]. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthy eating pattern as one that: This fact sheet by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) provides information that should not take the place of medical advice. Dietary intakes and serum nutrients differ between adults from food-insufficient and food-sufficient families: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1994. [, Caulfield LE, Zavaleta N, Shankar AH, Merialdi M. Potential contribution of maternal zinc supplementation during pregnancy to maternal and child survival. Zinc intakes might also be low in older adults from the 2%–4% of U.S. households that are food insufficient (sometimes or often not having enough food) [25]. Breast milk provides sufficient zinc (2 mg/day) for the first 4–6 months of life but does not provide recommended amounts of zinc for infants aged 7–12 months, who need 3 mg/day [2,36]. Zinc deficiency: its characterization and treatment. The federal government's 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans notes that "Nutritional needs should be met primarily from foods. Does oral zinc aid the healing of chronic leg ulcers? Zinc supplementation has been shown to improve growth in children with sickle cell disease [46]. Zinc is a mineral that your body uses for fighting off infections and producing cells. Because your body doesn’t naturally produce zinc, you must obtain it through food or … The cobalt in vitamin B12 is coordinated to five N atoms, four contributed by a tetrapyrrole (corrin); the sixth ligand is C, provided either by C5 of deoxyadenosine in enzymes such as methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (fatty acid metabolism) or by a methyl group in the enzyme that synthesizes the amino acid methionine in bacteria. Zinc is a common element in nucleic-acid polymerases and transcription factors, where its role is considered to be structural rather than catalytic. Data from NHANES III indicate that adults aged 60 years or older from food-insufficient families had lower intakes of zinc and several other nutrients and were more likely to have zinc intakes below 50% of the RDA on a given day than those from food-sufficient families [26]. Approximately 30%–50% of alcoholics have low zinc status because ethanol consumption decreases intestinal absorption of zinc and increases urinary zinc excretion [47]. A follow-up AREDS2 study confirmed the value of this supplement in reducing the progression of AMD over a median follow-up period of 5 years [78]. In proteins, vanadium is a cofactor in an algal bromoperoxidase and in certain prokaryotic nitrogenases. [, Prasad AS. The results showed that MTF-1 has physiologic significance and can act as a repressor of ZIP10 under normal cellular levels of zinc. ZNS : Zinc is an essential element; it is a critical cofactor for carbonic anhydrase, alkaline phosphatase, RNA and DNA polymerases, alcohol dehydrogenase, and many other physiologically important proteins. The Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), a large, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial (n = 3,597), evaluated the effect of high doses of selected antioxidants (500 mg vitamin C, 400 IU vitamin E, and 15 mg beta-carotene) with or without zinc (80 mg as zinc oxide) on the development of advanced AMD in older individuals with varying degrees of AMD [75]. [, Wise A. Phytate and zinc bioavailability. In: Shils ME, Shike M, Ross AC, Caballero B, Cousins, RJ, eds. The effects of zinc supplementation on diarrhea in children with adequate zinc status, such as most children in the United States, are not clear. Zinc sulfate is used to treat and to prevent zinc deficiency. [, Hooper PL, Visconti L, Garry PJ, Johnson GE. Effect of treatment with zinc gluconate or zinc acetate on experimental and natural colds. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. [, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Zinc is involved in numerous aspects of cellular metabolism. However, research has not shown that the general use of zinc sulfate in patients with chronic leg ulcers or arterial or venous ulcers is effective [61,62]. Zinc is extracted from zinc blend mainly found in earth crust as source for zinc. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68 (2 Suppl):499S-508S. They recommend use of an AREDS formulation providing 80 mg zinc [79,80]. Zinc supplements have the potential to interact with several types of medications. JAMA 2005;294:3101-7. Zinc is an essential trace element necessary for normal human functioning. Vanadium and chromium have several features in common, from a bioinorganic viewpoint.18a First, both metals are present in only small amounts in most organisms. Zinc is a critical component of the catalytic site of hundreds of kinds of different metalloenzymes in each human being. [, Heyneman CA. A meta-analysis of the effects of oral zinc in the treatment of acute and persistent diarrhea. The most common type of reaction in which cobalamin enzymes participate results in the reciprocal exchange of hydrogen atoms if they are on adjacent carbon atoms, yet not with hydrogen in solvent water: (An important exception is the ribonucleotide reductase from some bacteria and lower plants, which converts ribonucleotides to the DNA precursors, deoxyribonucleotides, a reaction in which a sugar -OH is replaced by -H. Note that ribonucleotide reductases catalyzing the same reaction in higher organisms and viruses are proteins with an oxo-bridged dimeric iron center.) Arch Dermatol 1998;134:1556-60. Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Have a question? Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1996;37:1225-35. Several studies are described below in which zinc is administered as a lozenge or zinc-containing syrup that temporarily "sticks" in the mouth and throat. Many denture creams have now been reformulated to eliminate zinc. Duration and severity of symptoms and levels of plasma interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor, and adhesion molecules in patients with common cold treated with zinc acetate. Missed the LibreFest? But little is known about the structure of the factor or of any other specific chromium complexes from plants, animals, or bacteria. Water-soluble and non-chelated, this is an inorganic form of zinc, and the results are … Effect of marginal zinc deficiency on human growth and development. Drug Saf 1995;12:314-33. Taking the antibiotic at least 2 hours before or 4–6 hours after taking a zinc supplement minimizes this interaction [91]. Zinc is relatively abundant in biological materials.8,9 The major location of zinc in the body is metallothionein, which also binds copper, chromium, mercury, and other metals. Zinc is present in several products, including some labeled as homeopathic medications, sold over the counter for the treatment and prevention of colds. Alaimo K, McDowell MA, Briefel RR, et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:300-7. A systematic literature review. Compared with placebo, the zinc lozenges significantly reduced the duration of cold symptoms (cough, nasal discharge, and muscle aches) [70]. Most infants (especially those who are formula fed), children, and adults in the United States consume recommended amounts of zinc according to two national surveys, the 1988–1991 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) [22] and the 1994 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) [23]. J Nutr 2001;131:1232-46. 1.1: Biological Significance of Iron, Zinc, Copper, Molybdenum, Cobalt, Chromium, Vanadium, and Nickel, https://chem.libretexts.org/@app/auth/2/login?returnto=https%3A%2F%2Fchem.libretexts.org%2FBookshelves%2FInorganic_Chemistry%2FBook3A_Bioinorganic_Chemistry_(Bertini_et_al. In others it plays a role in conformational stability. Research has not determined whether differences exist among forms of zinc in absorption, bioavailability, or tolerability. Kids need to get enough zinc in their diets because of its influence on cell development, meaning a lack of … Krasovec M, Frenk E. Acrodermatitis enteropathica secondary to Crohn's disease. The value of methods to determine zinc deficiency in patients with Crohn's disease. Zinc deficiency and corticosteroids in the pathogenesis of alcoholic brain dysfunction—a review. BMJ 2003;326:409-10. Zinc in the fetus and newborn. Zinc is important for growth and for the development and health of body tissues. However, because AREDS2 had fewer participants than the original AREDS study, and fewer than half took the lower zinc formula, the researchers view this finding as preliminary. The number of redox centers in some Mo-proteins exceeds the number of electrons transferred; reasons for this are unknown currently. [, Black RE. A daily intake of zinc is required to maintain a steady state because the body has no specialized zinc storage system [10]. Thus, the bioavailability of zinc from grains and plant foods is lower than that from animal foods, although many grain- and plant-based foods are still good sources of zinc [2]. Pediatrics 2008;121:326-36. 2011 Feb 16;2:CD001364. The doses of zinc used in the AREDS study (80 mg per day of zinc in the form of zinc oxide for 6.3 years, on average) have been associated with a significant increase in hospitalizations for genitourinary causes, raising the possibility that chronically high intakes of zinc adversely affect some aspects of urinary physiology [88]. Foods providing 20% or more of the DV are considered to be high sources of a nutrient, but foods providing lower percentages of the DV also contribute to a healthful diet. [. Acta Med Scand 1980;208:209-12. [, Evans JR. Antioxidant vitamin and mineral supplements for slowing the progression of age-related macular degeneration. ... Foods in nutrient-dense forms contain essential vitamins and minerals and also dietary fiber and other naturally occurring substances that may have positive health effects. Clinical management of acute diarrhoea. Laryngoscope 2006;116:217-20. [, Navarro S, Valderrama R, To-Figueras J, Gimenez A, Lopez JM, Campo E, et al. Ann Nutr Metab 2007;51:301-23. Zinc is an important trace mineral that people need to stay healthy. Researchers have hypothesized that zinc could reduce the severity and duration of cold symptoms by directly inhibiting rhinovirus binding and replication in the nasal mucosa and suppressing inflammation [68,69]. Acute adverse effects of high zinc intake include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, abdominal cramps, diarrhea, and headaches [2]. Zinc in Human Biology. Additional biological reactions are unique to nonferrous transition metals. Many of the other transition metals participate in reactions equivalent to those involving iron, and can sometimes substitute for iron, albeit less effectively, in natural Fe-proteins. [, Lewis MR, Kokan L. Zinc gluconate: acute ingestion. Serum zinc and pneumonia in nursing home elderly. Clin Infect Dis 2007;45 (1 Suppl):S73-7. [, Lansdown AB, Mirastschijski U, Stubbs N, Scanlon E, Agren MS. Zinc in wound healing: theoretical, experimental, and clinical aspects. Zinc is an essential trace element in the human body, where it is found in high concentration in the red blood cells as an essential part of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase, which promotes many reactions relating to carbon dioxide metabolism. Ineffectiveness of zinc gluconate nasal spray and zinc orotate lozenges in common-cold treatment: a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;75:181-2. Sometimes equivalent reactions are catalyzed by proteins with different metal centers; the metal binding sites and proteins have evolved separately for each type of metal center. The manufacturer recalled these products from the marketplace. [, Fabris N, Mocchegiani E. Zinc, human diseases and aging. Sandstrom B. Bioavailability of zinc. Adequate Intake (AI): Intake at this level is assumed to ensure nutritional adequacy; established when evidence is insufficient to develop an RDA. 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